Medicine

📰 Cancer therapies and regenerative medicine

📰 Cancer therapies and regenerative medicine
Written by TEWSV

Changes in cellular identity and plasticity play an important role during cellular reprogramming to the pluripotent state. In parallel, these changes are also emerging as important regulators of different stages of oncogenic transformation. A better understanding of the associated molecular mechanisms is therefore a crucial question, both for the medicinal (Medicine (from the Latin medicus, “that heals”) is science and the …) regenerative but also for biology (Biology, commonly called “bio”, is the science of life ….) from cancer (Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal cell proliferation …). Yet the sequences of events that coordinate these changes in identity and plasticity have never been comparatively dissected into cells undergoing reprogramming and transformation. A new study published in the journal Natural cell biology helps lift the veil on these questions.

📰 Cancer therapies and regenerative medicine
Trajectory of cells undergoing reprogramming or oncogenic transformation. the graphic (The word graphic has several meanings. It is used in particular 🙂 gifts data (In information technology (IT), data is an elementary description, often …) Single-cell transcriptomics of somatic cells (embryonic fibroblasts) induced to reprogram themselves into cells iPS (Ips is a genus of insects in the order Coleoptera, subfamily …) (for the exogenous expression of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) or to become cancerous from the expression of c-Myc and an oncogenic form of K-Ras (K-RasG12D). The reconstructed trajectories are presented as a line red (The red color responds to different definitions, depending on the color system we are making …) for reprogramming and blue for transformation. They intersect before forking, indicating a common program. Each point (graphics) corresponds to the transcriptome of a single cell. The color (Color is the eye’s subjective perception of one or more wave frequencies …) the dots correspond to groups of cells with transcriptomic similarities.
© Fabrice Lavial

In this study, the scientists compared, on a single-cell scale, the trajectories of cells that begin reprogramming to become induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and those of cells that begin to transform to become cancerous. It has been known for several years that the processes of reprogramming and oncogenic transformation have a certain degree (The word degree has several meanings, in particular it is used in the fields …) of analogy since they are both stochastic and limited by barriers such as the died (Death is the final state of a biological organism that ceases to live (even if …) cell and senescence. However, the comparative approach conducted by the researchers, combined with bioinformatic analyzes of the modifications of the transcriptome and of the epigenome, allowed to reveal the existence of an intrinsic molecular program common to these two cellular “destinies”.

Furthermore, by focusing on the early stages of both processes, the scientists demonstrated that cellular plasticity and identity are controlled by at least partially independent molecular networks. In fact, the use of a new combination (A combination can be 🙂 of markers (Bcl11b and Thy1) allowed the to catch (A capture, in the field of astronautics, is a process by which a celestial object, which …) intermediate cellular states that emerge very early in both processes. The characterization functional (In mathematics, the term functional refers to certain functions ….) and the multi-omics of these states made it possible to demonstrate that they had already acquired a certain degree of cellular plasticity while their identity remained unchanged. At the molecular level, this approach therefore led to the identification of an axis of regulation (The term regulation refers in its concrete sense to a technical discipline, which is …)centered on the transcription factor Atoh8, which blocks theacquisition (Generally, acquisition is the action of obtaining information or acquiring a …) cellular plasticity and therefore reprogramming and transformation. Again, the authors showed that this c-Myc / Atoh8 / Sfrp1 check (The word control can have several meanings. It can be used as a synonym for examination, for …) in particular the plasticity of cells without affecting their identity.

This study therefore allows us to better understand the control of cellular identity and plasticity in a context (The context of an event includes the circumstances and conditions surrounding it; the …) cancerous regeneration or development. Conceptually, it also paves the way for different approaches. Researchers in this study are now interested in the drawing (Design (style in French) is a field aimed at creating objects, …) non-tumor regeneration strategies in the context of applications in regenerative medicine. Furthermore, this work indicates the possibility of developing anticancer strategies specifically and exclusively targeted at cellular plasticity.

To know more:
Comparative roadmaps of reprogramming and oncogenic transformation identify Bcl11b and Atoh8 as broad regulators of cellular plasticity
Huyghe, G. Furlan, J. Schroeder, E. Cascales, A. Trajkova, M. Ruel, F. Stüder, M. Lacombe, Y. Bo Yang Sun (Sun Microsystems (NASDAQ: SUNW) is a computer manufacturer and software publisher …)F. Mugnier, L. De Matteo, A. Baygin, J. Wang, Y. Yu, N. Rama, B. Gibert, J. Kielbassa, L. Tonon, P. Wajda, N. Gadot, M. Brevet, M . Siouda, P. Mulligan, R. Dante (DANTE (Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe) is a non-profit organization …)p. Liu (Liu (Chinese: 柳 宿, pinyin: liǔ xiù) is a lunar lodge of …)H. Gronemeyer, M. Mendoza-Parra, JM Polo and F. Lavial.
Natural cell biologySeptember 8, 2022. doi: 10.1038 / s41556-022-00986-w

Laboratory
Center of Research (Scientific research primarily refers to all actions undertaken with a view to …) in oncology (Oncology or carcinology or cancerology is the medical specialty …) of Lyon – (Inserm / CNRS / Lyon1 University). Leon Berard Center. 28 Street (The street is a circulation space in the city that serves homes and places …) Laennec. 69008 Lyon.

Contact:
Fabrice Lavial – Researcher (A researcher (female researcher) refers to a person whose job is to do research …) Inserm – [email protected]

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